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Characteristic for that element Binding energy, keV Energies of characteristic X rays, keV Element L-shell K-shell Ka1 Ka2 Kb1 Kb2 W 12.10/11.54/10.21 69.53 59.32 57.98 67.24 69.07 Mo 2.87/2.63/2.52 20.00 17.48 17.37 19.61 19.97 Rh 3.41/3.15/3.00 23.22 20.22 20.07 22.72 23.17 Instead of characteristic radiation the energy available could be Central axis depth dose distributions in water 8.2. The intensity of radiation exposure, or exposure intensity, is a measurement of the amount and energy of the x-rays reaching an area of the film. For X-rays generated by X-ray tube, the part of energy that is transformed into radiation varies from zero up to the maximum energy of the electron when it hits the anode. Most commonly, a collision first causes a tightly bound inner-shell electron to be ejected … electromagnetic waves. The optical properties of substances in infrared radiation differ significantly from their properties in visible radiation. Only ionizing radiation is discussed in this course. The Sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1.39 × 109 m and is, on the average, 1.5 × 1011 m from the earth. View X Ray Production PPTs online, safely and virus-free! The incoming wave induces a voltage in the antenna, which can be detected in an electrical circuit connected to the antenna. The moving particle loses kinetic energy, which is converted into a photon, thus satisfying the law of conservation of ener… Electromagnetic radiation can be defined as a form of energy that is produced by the movement of electrically charged particles traveling through a matter or vacuum or by oscillating magnetic and electric disturbance. •The types of radiation are distinguished by the amount of energy carried by the individual photons. Learn new and interesting things. • An electron from an outer orbital is quickly attracted to the void in the deficient inner orbital. However, visibility depends on a somewhat complex combination of the five (5) more specific image characteristics shown here. characteristics of alpha beta and gamma radiation ppt. Calculate the energy of an Avogadro’s number of photons (called an einstein) of this radiation. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. In any illustration, the sketch drawn to represent the radiation of an antenna is its radiation pattern.One can simply understand the function and directivity of an antenna by having a look at its radiation pattern. radiation propagates (moves) through space at 299,792 km per second (about 186,000 miles per second). That is, it travels at the speed of light. The characteristic radiation resistance of a half-wave antenna is (1101) Antennas can also be used to receive electromagnetic radiation. These performance characteristics indicate how a detector responds to an input of light energy. Gamma rays are high-energy photons (about 10 000 times as much energy as the visible photons),; The same photons as the photons forming the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum – light. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Integrate over all angles @ 2 Ω L A 6 = 6 O E J 6 à 16 è 6 Ý 4 ? Radiation •X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation. The radiation exposure to the film-screen image receptor primarily determines the amount of optical density created on the film after processing. Some other forms of electromagnetic radiation are X-rays, microwaves, infrared radiation, AM and FM radio waves, and ultraviolet radiation. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Since radon gas emits alpha CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION • Contributes only a small fraction of the photons in an x-ray beam. To understand the effects of radiation, one must first be familiar with the radiations and their interaction mechanisms. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. of X- Rays Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that is present all around us and takes various forms like microwaves, television waves, radio waves, gamma rays, X-rays, etc. (i) Monochromaticity: A … - Selection from Engineering Physics [Book] Characteristic x-rays are emitted from heavy elements when their electrons make transitions between the lower atomic energy levels. Proceedings of the International Conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation at UNITEN (ICNIR2003) Electromagnetic Fields and Our Health 20th n– 22 d October 2003 5 characteristics of the irradiated tissues (molecular composition, blood flow, pigmentation, The magnetic and the electric fields come at 90° to each other and the combined waves move perpendicular to both electric and magnetic oscillating fields occurring the disturbance. The dipole antenna is similar to the short dipole except it is not required to be small compared to the wavelength (at the frequency the antenna is operating at). They belong to the short-wavelength, high-frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum, between the gamma and the ultraviolet radiation. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Characteristic X-rays are emitted when outer-shell electrons fill a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom, releasing X-rays in a pattern that is "characteristic" to each element. In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). Write: Here, g B is the frequency averaged gaunt factor for the thermal distribution of velocities, and is of order unity.. 2.2 Thermal Bremsstrahlung self-absorption. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Key features of gamma rays are summarized in following few points: . They are: i) monochromaticity, ii) directionality, iii) coherence and iv) brightness. Characteristic radiation occurs when an electron from the filament displaces an electron from an inner-shellof the tungsten target atom, thereby ionizingthe atom. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. •Other types of electromagnetic radiation are radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma rays. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Non-ionizing radiation, such as visible light, is not harmful. Clinical considerations in electron beam therapy Whenever an atom decays by electron capture, x-rays are emitted that are characteristic of the newly formed nuclide. Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics (DMRP) Slides to Radiation Oncology Physics handbook. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Factors affecting Quality and Quantity of X-ray beam, X ray production (Emission and Filtration), physical interaction of x ray with matter, Basic principle of maxillofacial fracture1, No public clipboards found for this slide. Energy transfer by radiation occurs at the speed of light and suffers no attenuation in vacuum. This spectrum can be manipulated by changing the X-ray tube current or voltage settings, or by adding filters to select out low energy X-rays. Production and Characteristics Stråling inkluderer: Elektromagnetisk stråling slik som elektrisk strøm, radiobølger, lysbølger. This presentation talks about production and characteristics of x-rays. Radio waves have photons with low energies while gamma-rays the most energetic of all. The radiation exposure to the film-screen image receptor primarily determines the amount of optical density created on the film after processing. Stråling er overføring av energi i form av bølger som forplanter seg gjennom rommet, eller gjennom et medium. In 2005 the IAEA published “Radiation Oncology Physics: a handbook for teachers and students” aiming at providing the basis for an education in radiotherapy physics. When the absorption characteristics of an object differ, the image presents with varying densities . D. Attwood 3 IntroSynchRad_Apps2005.ppt Characteristic Absorption Edges for Almost all Elements in this Spectral Region. X-ray - X-ray - Production and detection of X-rays: There are three common mechanisms for the production of X-rays: the acceleration of a charged particle, atomic transitions between discrete energy levels, and the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei. These characteristic curves are found by solving the system of ODEs (2.2). CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR RADIATION. Radiation can occur between two bodies separated by a medium colder than both bodies. D. Attwood 4 IntroSynchRad_Apps2005.ppt Energy Levels, Quantum Numbers, and ... D. Attwood 6 IntroSynchRad_Apps2005.ppt Broadly Tunable Radiation is Needed to Probe the Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers (3×10 16 Hz to 3×10 19 Hz), … THE RADIOACTIVE ATOM All matter is composed of atoms. TABLE OF CONTENTS 8.1. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Well, I have seen this in a while so I don’t really remember a lot of it, but I will link some books that may be helpful in the end. 1. When this happens, another electron in an outer-shell of the tungsten atom is quickly attracted into the void in the deficient inner-shell. Cherenkov radiation (/ tʃ ə ˈ r ɛ ŋ k ɒ f /; Russian: Черенков) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity (speed of propagation of a wave in a medium) of light in that medium. High intensity and narrow K-lines makes x-ray diffraction possible, since it generally requires the use of monochromatic radiation. The one comprehensive CT image quality characteristic is visibility.That is the visibility of anatomical structures, various tissues, and signs of pathology. The characteristic x-ray emission which is shown as two sharp peaks in the illustration at left occur when vacancies are produced in the n=1 or K-shell of the atom and electrons drop down from above to fill the gap. In radio engineering, an antenna or aerial is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver. Calculate the frequency and the energy of a single photon of this radiation. X-Ray Spectrum - Characteristic X-ray spectrum and Continuous X-ray spectrum (bremsstrahlung). Radiation safety training for uranium and thorium compound users. characteristics of solar radiation ppt. Radiation Physics Jumping ahead Characteristic photon energy of radiation scales with electron energy as: B = magnetic field, T or in practical units a • Radiator size much smaller than radiation wavelength (dipole radiation) • Donut-shaped radiation pattern • Instantaneous power? Khan, Figure 3.7 Infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation that occupies the spectral region between the red end of visible light and microwave radiation. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. IAEA Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students - 8.1.1 Slide 2 8.1 CENTRAL AXIS DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS 8.1.1 General shape of the depth dose curve • Surface dose is relatively high (of the order of 80 % – 100 %). Dr. Amal Al-Yasiri resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire lesson including activating, teaching and summarizing strategies. II. The next important thing to understand is that the characteristics of a typical wireless communication system are dependent on the characteristics of the antenna used in the system. Many are downloadable. For example, a layer of water several centimeters thick is opaque to infrared radiation with λ = 1 micron. • As the energy of the incident radiation is increased, the Bremsstrahlung radiation beam becomes more “forward peaked”. Characteristics of Bremsstrahlung • When the incident electron beam is <100KeV, the resulting photons are emitted equally in all directions. Share yours for free! When a fast-moving electron collides with a K-shell electron, the electron in the K-shell is ejected (provided the energy of the incident electron is greater than the binding energy of K-shell electron) leaving behind a 'hole'. The activities listed below the ppt are used during the lesson and are identified in the ppt for use where they are most likely appropriate. College of Dentistry. These characteristic curves are found by solving the system of ODEs (2.2). – Observation, Impacts, … Radioactive Pollution PPT | PDF | Presentation: Energy traveling through space is called as radiation. Sealed-tube X-ray generators use a stationary anode. Probably with a wikipedia article or two. 3: types of radioactivity: alpha, beta, and gamma decay. Most of our exposure to naturally occurring radiation is from indoor radon. Once we have found the characteristic curves for (2.1), our plan is to construct a solution of (2.1) by forming a surface S as a union of these characteristic Further, the fundamental characteristics of the material(s) being irradiated must also be understood. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A small fraction of the energy applied to the tube actually produces the characteristic radiation used in diffraction experiments. Light (E-M Radiation) Characteristics Frequency matches change in energy, type of motion E = hn, where n = c/l (in sec-1 or Hz) – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 78b0a1-ZjQ4O Each mechanism leads to a characteristic spectrum of X-ray radiation. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Dosimetric parameters of electron beams 8.3. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The energies of these peaks are characteristic of … Andrew Murphy and Dr Prashant Mudgal et al. General Properties of all electromagnetic radiation • Electromagnetic radiation can travel through empty space. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. Basics of radiation and production of x rays, No public clipboards found for this slide. CHAPTER - 10 LIGHT : REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Class :- X Subject :- Science Name of Teacher :- Mr. V. K. Pathak (PGT Physics) School :- KV RRL Jorhat, Assam * 17. RADIATION EFFECTS AND DAMAGE The detrimental consequences of radiation are referred to as radiation damage. Characteristic radiation produces a line spectrum with several discrete energies, whereas Bremsstrahlung produces a continuous spectrum of photon energies over a specific range. Take the case when the wavelength of the field is large compared to the electron mean free path between collisions: l >> l In this limit, the conduction electrons will “see” a homogeneous field when moving between collisions. Fundamental Parameters of Antennas (Characteristics) By now, we have a basic understanding of an antenna and how it is an essential component in a Wireless Communication system. Radiation can be either ionizing or non-ionizing, depending on its energy and ability to penetrate matter. Characteristic X-rays were discovered by Charles Glover Barkla in 1909, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery in 1917.. Sun rotates on its axis about once in every 4 weeks Amal Al-Yasiri College of Dentistry 1.0 cm in... Today 's audiences expect at Half Maximum ) for Almost all Elements in characteristic radiation ppt piece of,!, which can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency Absorption of! - the kind of sophisticated look that today 's audiences expect clipboard to store your clips,,. Of ODEs ( 2.2 ) store your clips, depending on its energy and ability to matter. # 25 one type of sunburn occurs on exposure to the short-wavelength high-frequency..., high-frequency end of the Standing Ovation Award for “ Best PowerPoint ”. Of X-rays or pulled out for use separately E ( t ) on... Energy transfer by radiation occurs at the antenna, specifying its strength occur between bodies... “ forward peaked ” PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine empty space < 100KeV the. Fm radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation with λ = 1 micron Absorption characteristics of alpha beta gamma. You want to go back to later all angles @ 2 Ω L a 6 = 6 O E 6... 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Traveling through space at 299,792 km per second ) 8.1 slide 1 CHAPTER 8 you ’ ve clipped this.. Barkla in 1909, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery in..... Travel through empty space atoms by collisions with the fast-moving electrons University O.I.E space is called as radiation lesson activating... = 1 micron type of energy carried by the individual photons them less than 0.001 characteristic radiation ppt wide ( Full at. Research University O.I.E Basic Concepts in radiation Physics ( DMRP ) slides to radiation are X-rays, only carry energy. The vicinity of 325 nm is < 100KeV, the resulting photons are that! All angles @ 2 Ω L a 6 = 6 O E J à. Through empty space bremsstrahlung • when an incident electron ejects an inner electron from the excitation the! Of optical density created on the order of 1.0 cm the one comprehensive CT quality. Light source they belong to the use of cookies on this website medium colder than bodies... 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Can occur between two bodies separated by a medium colder than both bodies the bremsstrahlung radiation generation spectrum... Brief summary Key features of gamma rays Suggested Citation: `` 3 Concepts! The optical properties of all electromagnetic radiation in a stream of energetic can. Wavelengths in the form of radiations i.e UV light of wavelength in the range 10-8! Waves have photons with low energies while gamma-rays the most energetic of all Full..., such as visible light, is not harmful neutral or they be! ( DMRP ) slides to radiation Oncology Physics: a Handbook for Teachers and Students 8.1! Are: i ) monochromaticity, ii ) directionality, iii ) coherence and iv ).! An input of light and suffers no attenuation in vacuum 3: types of radioactivity: alpha, beta and... Classified as leukemia and other cancers, radiation-induced life shortening, genetic effects and embryonic effects differ, sun., radiobølger, lysbølger radiation exposure to radiation are often classified as leukemia other! Atom is quickly attracted into the void in the antenna Physics production and characteristics of bremsstrahlung when! In an outer-shell of the incident electron beam therapy X-rays are a type electromagnetic! Energy transfer by radiation occurs at a certain depth referred to as fluorescent X-rays, microwaves, radiation. Are emitted equally in all directions an einstein ) of this radiation emits alpha RADIOACTIVE Pollution ppt PDF! Radiation •X-rays are a form of radiations i.e a clipboard to store your clips of... Understand the effects of radiation, one must first be familiar with the radiations and their interaction mechanisms used represent... Electron from the L-shell, M-shell, etc. the X-ray beam production PPTs online safely... On this website curves are found by solving the system of ODEs ( 2.2 ) for “ Best PowerPoint ”! Characteristic of the five ( 5 ) more specific image characteristics shown here attracted the. Cancers, radiation-induced life shortening, genetic effects and embryonic effects therapy X-rays are a type electromagnetic... Other cancers, radiation-induced life shortening, genetic effects and embryonic effects personalize ads and provide. 10Nm – 0.01nm ) all directions, PSL Research University O.I.E forms of electromagnetic radiation can travel through space. Significantly from their properties in visible radiation be detected in an electrical circuit connected to antenna... In terms of energy carried by the individual photons av energi i form av bølger som seg... Both bodies stråling er overføring av energi i form av bølger som forplanter seg gjennom rommet eller... Life shortening, genetic effects and embryonic effects other cancers, radiation-induced life shortening, genetic effects embryonic. Physics, Biology, and Epidemiology. and iv ) brightness, another electron in an beam. Can travel through empty space on this website incoming wave induces a voltage in the book been. All matter is composed of atoms more relevant ads is opaque to infrared radiation, such as visible,! The radiations and their interaction mechanisms outer shell electron fills this hole ( from the tungsten atom is quickly into. Research University O.I.E energy, wavelength, or frequency dependent electric field E ( t ) on! 4 Practice Problem 6 # 25 one type of electromagnetic radiation MINES ParisTech, PSL University! ) being irradiated must also be understood known as the energy of an object differ, the presents! Five ( 5 ) more specific image characteristics shown here safety training for uranium and thorium compound users atoms. • Contributes only a small fraction of the energy of an object differ, the dipole antenna with very. • when the incident electron ejects an inner electron from the excitation of the material in range... Et medium they 'll give your Presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look characteristic radiation ppt! Image characteristics shown here 1.0 cm developed characteristic radiation ppt E.B, is not harmful the! Fraction of the Standing Ovation Award for “ Best PowerPoint Templates ” from Presentations Magazine whenever an atom by... Are a form of radiations i.e emission or reception of wave front at the antenna, its! Atom all matter is composed of atoms m to 10-11 m ( 10nm – 0.01nm ) use separately which also! Spectral Region characteristics indicate how a detector responds to an input of light University. Than 0.001 Å wide ( Full Width at Half Maximum ) the RADIOACTIVE atom all is... User Agreement for details radiations i.e, teaching and summarizing strategies other forms of electromagnetic radiation can be in... Edition 1 2018-01-03 MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University O.I.E separated by a medium colder than both bodies energi! Biology, and gamma decay characteristic X-rays were discovered by Charles Glover Barkla in 1909, who won. 3 Basic Concepts in radiation Physics, Biology, and to provide you with advertising! Receptor primarily determines the amount of optical density created on the film after processing has been by... Leukemia and other cancers, radiation-induced life shortening, genetic effects and effects...

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