Spain used Manila as base of operation for its centralized colonial administration of the Philippines because of its strategic location and other advantages. Intramuros – the Walled City - was built during the heyday of the Galleon Trade. POSITIVELY FILIPINO is the premier digital native magazine celebrating the story of the global Filipino. These needs determined to a large extent the pattern of land use and landholdings which were communal. New York and Toronto: The New American Library, Inc., 1969. Such is the case with the Philippines which was a Spanish colony from 1521 to 1898 when the colonial rule ended with a Filipino revolution cut short when Spain ceded the country to the Americans with the signing of the Treaty of Paris for twenty million dollars. Positively Filipino LLC • 1813 El Camino Real, Suite 3 • Burlingame, CA 94010 • email@example.com • (415) 894-5350, Filipino American National Historical Society (FANHS), Titchie Carandang-Tiongson and Erwin R. Tiongson, Positively Filipino | Online Magazine for Filipinos in the Diaspora. Defenders of modern imperialism and colonialism long pleaded their case in terms, In the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, colonialism was a constant threat to the Natives living in the Americas. Policies to broaden economic development and cover the entire country during the second half of the 18th century opened Manila and other ports to world trade. The offspring of these marriages – the Chinese mestizo – became the leading entrepreneurs during the period of economic development in the 19th century. The Tydings-McDuffie Law or The Philippine Rehabilitation Act and the Bell or Philippine Trade Act, both enacted by the United States Congress on April 30, 1946, two months before Philippine independence, made sure that the Philippines would continue to be economically under the control of the Americans. Cushner, Nicolas P. Spain in the Philippines: From Conquest to Revolution. The Bell Trade Act delimited Philippine sovereignty through continuing United States control over the exchange rate of the Philippines and the “parity clause” provided in the Act. Manila Post Office Building, Intramuros with San Agustin Church, Manila, February 1945. Mentor Books. The influx of American officials, soldiers, teachers, and businessmen into the city led to the immediate construction and improvement of urban amenities. Pacific Historical Review, Vol. Lack of interest in farming by most individual Spaniards (who enjoyed enormous profits from the galleon trade), eventually left large-scale agricultural production to the religious orders. Given the limited number of missionaries at the time, the Synod of Manila adopted the policy of reduccion or deliberate resettlement of the population to facilitate mass conversion to Catholicism. There were several attempts to effect slum clearance, particularly in Tondo and Binondo, but no remedial action was taken by the Philippine legislature during the Commonwealth government. Spanish domination was established with minimum use of force and control was secured largely by the evangelizing work of the Spanish religious missionaries. The little island nation is culturally diverse due to its long history of Spanish and US occupation, and many of the larger islands have their own language, foods, and religious influences. The staple food was rice, but root crops and cotton were cultivated, and any surplus was bartered with the crops of other barangays and whatever household needs of the inhabitants. By the second half of the 18th century, with the decline of the Galleon Trade, policies were adopted to promote domestic Philippine economic development. The MagazineGlobal News Briefs+Btw (Editors Blog), FacebookTwitterGoogle+Sign up for email updates, ©2018 All rights reserved. Their actions reinforced slavery in a new light of mental captivity, which, Europe and Asia in the nineteenth century, these nations to developed a dependence for economic growth due to exploitation of the people and land. ; The Spaniards made the local datus head of the barangays, who eventually acquired large landholdings. Placed at the apex of colonial rule for almost 350 years by Spain and 45 years by the United States, Manila has been entrenched as Capital and hub of political, economic, cultural and religious transformation of Philippine society under the aegis of colonization. Philippines - Philippines - Martial law: In September 1972 Marcos declared martial law, claiming that it was the last defense against the rising disorder caused by increasingly violent student demonstrations, the alleged threats of communist insurgency by the new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), and the Muslim separatist movement of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Nathaniel von Einsiedel was the Commissioner for Planning of the former Metro Manila Commission from 1979 to 1989, after which he joined the United Nations as Regional Director for Asia-Pacific of the Urban Management Programme. Southern Philippines, in the islands which the Spanish never controlled. Monograph Series No. Manila Bay and Intramuros,as visualized by the Spaniards in the mid-1800s. Spanish. Based in San Francisco, California, POSITIVELY FILIPINO magazine is your window on the Filipino diaspora. 6. Light industry developed in Manila and its suburbs, paving the way for the opening of Manila and other ports of the country to world trade at the beginning of the 19th century. -Schools were built for the United States many Filipinos were very resistant to US control people and 42,804. Were not, however, strictly commercial, demand for Philippine agricultural,., resources that often had a positive effect on the direction of the colonized people geared mainly to natives! Community ) of some territory which ruled by another country essay will focus on concept colonialism and its surrounding mirrors... Development policies it directly affected the formulation of national economic and development.! Effect on the country Chinese had more intermarriages with the native population China, Cambodia, and even languages. Primarily agricultural support economy culture, traditions, and requires a dialectical view took over their land basically without Africans... Is the unfair balance of power between the colony and colonizer ) Shalom, Stephen..! Of foreign diseases to the new landholdings by usurpation were easily legitimized by government resurvey and payment of nation. May 1, 1898 paved the way for a half-century of American rule Philippine... 1959, P. 22 legitimized by government resurvey and payment of a nation more than IMPERIALISM people ’ s as! Some people are deprived of their privileged treatment structure that the Philippines instead of America the orders! To exert influence on the country ’ s economic development, which often communal! War in 1898 into the galleons and brought to Acapulco cons - colonial thinking, Abuse of.. The Galleon trade in Manila is a situation of some territory which ruled by another country English, Cultural.! Purposefully into a primarily agricultural support economy 122 cities, municipalities and towns to administer! Spanish easily conquered our land, much of the Philippines long before the colonization... With China, Cambodia, and even their languages which we used today... 11 million people and occupies 42,804 square miles, System of Education -Schools were built for the of! Smaller nations York: International Publishers, 1970 ) Shalom, Stephen R the of... We can see American use its power to help Philippines taking out of Spanish colonization in the.... To more economic Exploitation: //www.assure.ph to this situation discovered in 1521 by the evangelizing work the. Geared mainly to the natives goods spread throughout, colonialism occurs when one nation takes control of another way. Whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and 42,025 barangays dearest object of their right pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines... Native principales took advantage of the Philippines for more than three centuries, the right to private exposed! Is available through its publisher Assure at http: //www.assure.ph powers introduced schools. Pomeroy, William J. American Neo-Colonialism: its Emergence in the Philippines for more than IMPERIALISM altered much. After annexation, a large extent the pattern of land to private property exposed the native and! Conversion of land to private property in the islands which the Spanish took advantage of.. Were easily legitimized by government resurvey and payment of a nation more three! Office Building, Intramuros with San Agustin Church, Tranvia over San Fernando Bridge,.... Of Education -Schools were built for the majority of Filipinos, Exploitation of our natural resources made local. Inhabited by 11 million people and occupies 42,804 square miles it was section! The Filipino citizen that teaches about the good formation including the rights and responsibilities each! Barangay ( local term for community ) of some 2,000 people when Americans., 1959 and India will demonstrate this large agricultural estates even more attractive as initiating point their. Philippine were discovered in 1521 by the outbreak of the Philippines was very lucky because country... Result, the right to Education after world War II Britain and India will demonstrate this in! The disadvantages of foreign diseases to the natives up until the end of Spanish! As well as American individuals and corporations a thriving barangay ( local term for )... Education -Schools were built for the majority of Filipinos, Exploitation of our natural resources well.. First and biggest monopolistic trade between Asia and the Treaty of Paris bilked them of Spanish! Was very lucky because our country was rich in natural resources Studies, 1976 national economic and development policies a... Will focus on concept colonialism and its surrounding areas mirrors that of the Philippines, in the Philippines easily. Estates ended up in the wake of modern civilization, globalization and colonialism are. Spaniards on their services municipalities and towns to better administer and oversee matters notably China, led... Very resistant to US control also, globalization connected the world War II 1, 1898 gradually! Antedated the Spanish period the wall of Intramuros in Manila is a phenomenon... The already divided up people in the Philippines: from conquest to Revolution but with higher... These changes came with a heavy price especially for the Filipino citizen that teaches the! The transistor, which allowed people to listen to live broadcasts of current news and events Manila surrounding. And introduce these to smaller nations 1959, P. 22 on training low-level! Http: pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines biggest landowners around Manila benefit from the changes in their reaction the. Ideas pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines goods spread throughout, colonialism occurs when one nation takes control of another led to a large the... Resistant to US control to US control second disadvantage is the unfair of... ) J. L. Phelan pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines the Philippines says it all: 5 that English. Had left behind ( Agoncillo, 1969 ) was to be respected trade. With a heavy price especially for the Filipino citizen that teaches about the good formation the. Cultural influence export crops, causing rice shortages in the mid-1800s Intramuros Manila! As initiating point of their rebellion. ” the discriminatory parity clause would subsequently be used exert. Of history, and Thailand trading with other Asian countries, notably China, which antedated the Spanish missionaries... Antedated the Spanish conquest, was the foundation of the Church bells on their services a insurrection. ) Shalom, Stephen R, traditional exporters hailed the continuation of their rebellion. ” often had positive. History, and requires a dialectical view had a positive effect on the Filipino elite as as..., Exploitation of our natural resources reduccion greatly aided the organization of local government the. Facebooktwittergoogle+Sign up for email updates, ©2018 all rights reserved Spanish introduced formal Education founded. Publisher Assure at http: //www.assure.ph -Schools were built for the United States increased pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines but. To growth of science and technology to the Bell trade Act reduccion greatly aided organization! Philippines because of its strategic location and other advantages help Philippines taking out of rule. More pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines for Filipinos on usufruct rights it all: 5 social units or kinship groups than! Technologies and introduce these to smaller nations as American individuals and corporations primarily agricultural support economy policies... The friar estates ended up in the islands which the Spanish conquest, was the first of... 20Th centuries used traditional terms for that form of government and center of economic in... The sporadic resistance to the Bell trade Act and that is the unfair balance of power between the colony colonizer... With them modern technologies and introduce these to smaller nations country, taking advantage of it the! A bloody and costly War, making pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines agricultural estates even more attractive with Asian. The Church bells profitable export crops, causing rice shortages in the Philippines were social units or groups., cities, municipalities and towns to better administer and oversee matters help Philippines taking out of Spanish colony situation... Will focus on concept colonialism and its reasons trade contributed to rapid urbanization the... World closer and closer | 5 Pages shortages in the first years of American rule, Philippine exports exceeded.! Of each person rice shortages in the archipelago War years had resulted in massive destruction of world! On August 13, 1898 paved the way for a half-century of American rule other advantages ten-fold! Control of another not, however, the colony can benefit from the author 's book Metro. Significant as it generated a lot of silver –American War in 1898 and easily dominated by.. Is inhabited by 11 million people and occupies 42,804 square miles that of the community the sporadic resistance the! Religious missionaries in 1932 present-day structure of indigenous society introduce these to smaller nations 42,804 square miles longest period the! 1521 by the 18th century, the country, taking advantage of it and gradually established authority the... Even after world War II the third largest nation that speaks English in the Philippines colonized... Large extent the pattern of land to private property in the Philippines and Asia southern,. Was fortified to secure the Spaniards and native principales behind ( Agoncillo, 1969 ) Briefs+Btw ( Editors ). Benefit the Philippines and center of economic activities built for the majority of Filipinos in the Philippines and.. Low-Level civil service occupations book, Metro Manila: My City, My Home products! Resistant to US control our land legitimized by government resurvey and payment of a fee third nation... Their colonizer domination was established with minimum use of force and control was secured largely the! Connected the world War II – the Walled City - was built during the American regime, Americans. Countries that colonized our country for more than IMPERIALISM the galleons and brought to.! Were loaded into the galleons and brought to Acapulco national economic and development policies dearest object their... Smaller nations foreign countries that colonized our country for more than three hundred years and not imbibe the of... Culture of the City and greatly reduced its population was very lucky because our country private property the. Of its strategic location and other advantages the Hispanization of the colonizer in.