A skeptical reader has a doubtful, questioning attitude, and expects a thorough presentation of logical reasoning and evidence. Required fields are marked *. In reality, students can find the time to study if they learn time-management skills.”, “Students face many time constraints: between work and family obligations, social responsibilities, sports, clubs, and the expectations of professors, who all think their class should be the top priority, students can have trouble finding time to study for all of their tests. Try to figure out why smart and rational people would hold those positions. It’s presented reasonably and respectfully. An argument should take a stance about a particular point of view, thesis, or claim. The writer supports his position with facts, logical reasoning and examples. A good persuasive essay demonstrates not only why the writer’s opinion is correct, but also why the opposing view is incorrect. A reader might want to verify what you quote here and also see if you’ve manipulated the context in any way. You can boost your credibility by acknowledging specific sources who disagree with your position. For theÂ reason stated above, the opposition may disagree the contention that information is lost and must be retaught. “All this talk about tolerance and the possibility of rehabilitation is nice in theory, but what if it was your own parent or child who was killed? In truth, the straw man is a well-known tactic, and readers can detect it quite easily. Put yourself in the other sideâs shoes. While it is true that keeping schools open throughout the year may cost more, the higher costs could be subsidized by making the buildings available for community rental to offset those costs. You can boost your credibility by acknowledging specific sources who disagree with your position, then effectively refuting their arguments. Those against year-round school argue that the costs of running many of the aging buildings year-round are too high. The following skills are evaluated when grading an argumentative essay: Satire is a humorous tone that can be deployed in summarizing a position in order to not only draw out its shortcomings, but also to correct or change the shortcomings of the position. If you consistently come from your side of the issue, you may miss articles by some of the stronger opponents. An advantage of using quotations is that you are allowing the opposition to speak for itself. This type of essay calls for extensive research of literature and, at times, empirical research through surveys and interviews. Consider and counter opposing viewpoints in order to strengthen your own argument. “Jones contends that Theseus serves as a counterpoint to Oberon and Titania, acting as a just and righteous monarch instead of falling sway to whims and personal desires.”. To move yourself out of this emotional realm and back into the realm of the well-reasoned argument, try taking a strategy from debate tournaments. There is far less satisfaction in making a convincing argument if objections are left unanswered and evidence is swept under the rug. You’ll notice first that the author has an Hispanic surname, which lends ethos to his perspective. Using straw-man counterarguments and weakened oppositional statements, while somewhat tempting, will not serve to strengthen your own argument but will severely weaken it by causing the reader to lose respect for it. Just as with your own argument, you’ll want to find the best thinkers on the opposing side of the argument. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window). Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The worst is to start your essay with a blank page, so we collect the most useful information on one page! The burden of proof is on you, as the author of the argument. The first step for creating a strong opposition section is to thoroughly understand your audience. Make it clear that you are presenting someone else’s viewpoint, but don’t use emotionally charged, biased, or polemical language to summarize it. Some writers make the mistake of introducing a weak or silly opposition to make it easier to refute. Here, you state your objection to the view—the reason the reader should not accept the opposition’s viewpoint. During the research phase, you’ll want to have a respectful vision of both these people in your mind to build an argument that might help increase the understanding of where the other is coming from. The ability to refute opposition in an argument essay is a key element in a successful essay. Try to anticipate what objections your readers might have to your argument, and try to understand why they might object. Essay Writing Blog; Follow. ), you can show your readers the flaws in these counterarguments. Where are they on the scale of opposition? Debate tournament: At a debate tournament, you don’t know what side of the argument you’ll be assigned to, so you have to research both sides! You will want to resist the temptation to skew the comment’s meaning or to editorialize! The ability to refute opposition in an argument essay is a key element in a successful essay. For example: “Opponents of the Animal Welfare Act claimed that the use of animal subjects in drug testing was absolutely necessary to save human lives.”. Your argument will be much stronger if you present opposing viewpoints in a sympathetic light. In the process, you’ll win support from both sides of the argument for your reasonable approach. Paper Topics and Opposing Viewpoints. That includes researching to find the thought leaders on the opposing side of your topic, presenting their arguments in an honest light, and then moving into respectful refutation. As you introduce opposition, take care to be respectful of the other sideâs opinions. Finding Ideas to Write About. Try to persuade this reader; work hard to demonstrate why your position is more convincing than the alternatives. Our writers have a lot of experience with academic papers and know how to write Opposing Viewpoints In Argumentative Essays them without plagiarism. For example, you might write an essay arguing that military service should be mandatory. After you present the likely objections to your argument, you can show your readers why they should be willing to take your side. Itâs always a good idea at this stage to get some peer feedback, as your peers might be a good source of opposing views. How are they different? There are various ways to refute counterarguments in your paper, and selecting one will depend on your topic, your audience, and space/time limitations. evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner Of course, you will go on to explain why this counterargument is not conclusive, but as you introduce it, you show that you understand the logical and rational basis for the argument. Now that there is a clear statement of opposition, itâs your turn to rebut, or reinforce your point â that schools should move to a year round curriculum because students lose much of the previous yearâs information and must be re-taught. No matter how you decide to incorporate the counterargument into your essay, be sure you do so with objectivity, maintaining a formal and scholarly tone. In each refutation paragraph, you’ll want to state your opponent’s argument, clearly state your objection to that argument, support your objection with evidence and supportive statements, and then conclude with a comparison of the ideas. How do they interpret that evidence? So, in your writing, anticipate opposing viewpoints. An argument must, by definition, take a stance on an issue and provide evidence for a particular conclusion. You can go on to explain exactly why Smith’s opinion is naive—but make sure you give it a fair shot first. And the last sentence tells the reader you will deal with each of the concerns—violation of territorial integrity, safety, and well-being—in your refutation. You’ll just need to use this technique with caution and care. Your job during the research phase is to find counterarguments and material to refute them, and in the drafting phase to construct your argument in a way that incorporates these objections and counterarguments. The counter-argument paragraph presents the opposing arguments. Wouldn’t the meaning of a just society depend, then, on the court acting on your behalf?”. Here are some examples of neutral verbs you can use to introduce another author’s opposing view: “contends,” “argues,” “suggests,” “admits,” “claims,” “believes.”. Either way, you’ll be gathering the best information from both sides of the argument to present to your audience. A respectful and well thought-out response will put you on the path toward a successful argument! However, if you cite counterarguments from experts in the field, and then work to refute those arguments effectively, you can lend authority to your own argument. There are four basic parts to a refutation of an opposing argument: you introduce the counterargument, state your objection to it, offer evidence to support your view, and draw a clear conclusion by comparing the viewpoints head to head. Examples of neutral words are “contends,” “argues,” “suggests,” “admits,” ” claims,” and “believes.”. Make sure your claims and your refutations are not repetitive. You’ll want to present counterarguments to your thesis in ways that respect those who disagree. As you’re researching, spend some time putting in search terms as if you were arguing for the opposition. To find a good topic for an argumentative essay, consider several issues and choose a few that spark at least two solid, conflicting points of view. An important part of the argumentative essay is to use evidence both to substantiate one's own position and to refute the opposing argument. This is called a concession. An argument must, by definition, take a stance on an issue and provide evidence for a particular conclusion. There are several ways to introduce to your reader the counterarguments you’ve uncovered: quoting a source for the counterargument, paraphrasing a source, or using your own words to offer a rhetorical example or conditional statement. Support your objection with high-quality evidence, expert opinion, and solid reasoning: “The Bureau of Justice Statistics found that in 2005, punitive damages were awarded to only 5 percent of plaintiffs in civil trials.” Here, the writer uses both a widely respected source and statistics that refute the counterclaim. Enjoy the process! Whichever way you choose to bring the counterargument into the discussion, however, you’ll want to use neutral language. Beginning your search can be as simple as putting the question into a search engine: “Why would anyone oppose hate-crime legislation?”. This is not only respectful, but also a great opportunity to drive home your own points to re-emphasize your argument. But this actually weakens the writerâs argument. As you compose an argument essay, you must anticipate your audience’s objections. He has placed this objection just after his claim that all people should be given the opportunity for redemption, because he knows that that’s the claim that is most likely to ignite this counterargument in the reader’s mind. Depending on your writing style and material, your argument could follow various structural formats: This structure has the advantage of putting your argument in people ‘s minds first, so it can be useful when you are space-limited or your audience is time-limited. If the opposing view that you are considering and counteracting comes from another author, be sure to introduce the author and the point of view in a neutral way. You’ll also need to look for redundancy. Making a strong argument includes answering any of the potential objections that may form in a reader’s mind. Of course, you don’t want to stop there. When students are writing an argumentative essay, they need to acknowledge the valid points of the opposing argument, otherwise writers sound narrow-minded and thereby less effective. Learn by example and become a better writer with Kibin’s suite of essay help services. What life experiences might lead them to disagree with your point of view? There are many valid ways to introduce an opposing view, but do try to present it in a neutral manner before you shoot it down. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through female … How can you anticipate what the opposition might be? As you can see, a lot of thought and planning must go into building your argument and considering how the opposition may disagree with you. Gardening essay writing opposing essay viewpoints Writing how to write a case study report in social work! Present the view accurately and fairly, and possibly concede that there is reason or merit to this perspective. Gather quotes summarizing their viewpoints and then go digging to find statistics and other research that both back and counter their claims. Examples of Argumentative Language Below are examples of signposts that are used in argumentative essays. Tags: controversial, paper writing, pros and cons, research, speech, speeches, topics. This, of course, means there’s another side, and readers might disagree with your point of view. Use neutral language when you present opposing viewpoints. Well-done satire can make the reader smile, perhaps even if he or she is one of the pet-friendly owners referenced in the paragraph. The cue words, “while it is true” lets the reader know the writer is conceding, but will refute this idea. When you encounter these dissenting opinions, get curious. Your reader will lose interest the minute you get repetitive. You may have heard talk-radio hosts and opinion columnists employ this strategy. Follow our tips and make you argumentative essay writing process a lot easier! Match an argument to a corresponding counterargument. Follow WRITING CENTER UNDERGROUND on WordPress.com, More Students Willing to Cheat (NY Times 9/2012). HIRE verified writer $35.80 for a 2-page paper The best way to counteract an opposing viewpoint is to anticipate what an opponent might say. In the argumentative essay, you stick to the one side, but you can ignore the opposite side of the argument. In a good argumentative essay, a writer attempts to persuade readers to understand and support their point of view about a topic by stating their reasoning and providing evidence to back it up. How do they interpret that evidence? A very common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. Argument essays seek to state a position on an issue and give several reasons, supported by evidence, for agreeing with that position. In this fourth step, the conflict must be resolved. You’ll also notice that the publication and date is included, so a reader can quickly and easily find the original source material. In order to strengthen your own argument and demonstrate that you’ve looked at all aspects of the topic, you need to address the opposing view. What Is an Argumentative Essay? If he’s about to say, “Wait, what about…” beat him to the punch. As you’re researching, then, take the debater’s approach to gathering information so you’ll be very well-informed about the opposing views. University Library However, writers may neglect the next step, which is just as important: discussing opposing viewpoints and providing counterarguments. Some writers make the mistake of introducing a weak or silly opposition to make it easier to refute. If you shortchange the opposing viewpoint, your readers will suspect that you are trying to compensate for shortcomings in your own argument. Considerations when writing… The persuasive essay follows the basic essay format as displayed in the example. It's possible that you, too, are so dashing and your argume… You’ve presented his words respectfully, however, allowing them to speak for themselves. You would do research exploring the benefits of mandatory military service in the acountries that enforce it. 1. Argument essay topics can be found everywhere. Punitive Damage Awards in State Courts, 2005. Outline the process for refuting an argument. : To be an ace arguer, you’ll need to clearly state your objections to your opponent’s arguments and support your objections with evidence. Letâs consider the argument below and how you might include opposition: Argument: Schools should move to a year round curriculum. That way, you will be familiar enough with these opposing viewpoints to argue against them. Paper Topics and Opposing Viewpoints Topics to Consider Search this Guide Search. As you can see by the previous example, the opposition has a valid point. The trick is to use this technique without alienating readers, and that is not an easy balance. When pointing out opposing arguments (Cons): Opponents of this idea claim/maintain that… Those who disagree/ are against these ideas may say/ assert that… In the research phase, gathering evidence against your argument will help you refute counterarguments in the writing stage. “While job creation programs may indeed increase the nation’s short-term financial burden, the strategy of putting people back to work has consistently been proven to create a stronger economic and social fabric in the long run.” Concluding statements are not simply restatements of the claim but actual comparisons of the two approaches with a conclusion as to why one argument is superior. Instead of changing your thesis, consider conceding the point. If you have a refutation that simply repeats one of your claims, see if you can find a different way to refute the opposing argument. You can introduce counterarguments with direct quotations from an opposing expert by paraphrasing, by offering a rhetorical example, or by offering a conditional statement. Researchers at Chimi-Changa Education Labs have done extensive studies focusing on the effectiveness of year-round schools, and their conclusions show an increase in learning in all areas of study. Present the opposition’s views first, and then prove that your argument is more reasonable than the opposing views. So an effective refutation paragraph establishes the ethos, or the writer's credibility with his/her audience. If the opposition states that the research in inconclusive, this is your opportunity to show strong, valid research that does support a year-round curriculum on the basis of lost information over the long break.Â You will argue that the opposition hasÂ based their argument on a faulty assumption —Â that research showsÂ there is no benefit.Â The opposition/rebuttal paragraph would look something like this: Those against changing our current 9-month school calendar to year-round,is that there has been no conclusive research that supports that it has any academic benefit. Another way to present a counterargument is to introduce it in your own words in the form of an example. However, students can find the time to study if they work on their time-management skills.”. Instead, you will take this opposing position, supporting these claims. So, how might one go about making such fundamental decisions?”. An academic argument supports its claim with sound reasoning, research, and evidence such as facts, statistics, and quoted opinions from authorities on both sides of the argument. However, this is untrue. List of best Opposing Viewpoints essays, topics - argumentative, MLA, APA format. Finally, ensure that if your introduction and conclusion include counterargument scenarios (images, quotes, stories), they’re consistent with what you’ve found in the research. You may be tempted to weaken an objection to your argument by turning it into a straw man, or a flimsy version of the original point. First of all, you'll need to gather evidence and present a well-reasoned argument on a debatable issue. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. In doing this, you’re acting as a proxy for your readers, voicing their potential objections, hopefully at just the moment those objections arise in their minds. Don’t dismiss your opposition from the outset with language like this: “John Smith naively argues…” Instead, you could say, “John Smith contends,” and then summarize John Smith’s view. The strongest arguments are those which carefully consider all perspectives in an attempt to find the most reasonable view of the issue. Argumentative essay
By Megan Allman
2. You are conceding that the opposing argument is not completely false. As you look over a list of topics, find one that really piques your interest, as you'll be more successful if you're passionate about your topic. Rugby: Anticipating your opponents’ objections can help you structure your arguments more soundly. You wouldn’t want your verdict to be overturned on appeal! An argumentative essay is quite similar to a persuasive essay, as it's designed to convince the reader of your point of view. Developing a creative, original title is a fantastic … An argumentative essay is an essay which purpose is to present evidence to support an idea. Bring them up and explain why they don’t invalidate your central argument. When researching the topic, then, don’t limit yourself to sympathetic sources; find sources that disagree with your argument. For example, if you’re arguing for hate-crime legislation and your search terms use only language related to that, you may find counterarguments based on free speech, but you may exclude those that oppose legislation on religious grounds. The Process of Argumentative Essay Writing. It’s good for us to laugh at ourselves, and when we do so, we can relax our defenses and open up to the opposing argument. Introducing the strongest point of opposition and strongly refuting it with a well thought-out response serves to make the writerâs position stronger. When you encounter dissenting opinions, try to figure out why smart and rational people would hold those positions. For example, a person who has grown up hunting in a community that has never experienced gun violence might have a very different perspective on gun control than someone whose child was the victim of a shooting. It requires a debatable topic with opposing points of view. Now that you’ve built a strong foundation of credibility by presenting the likely objections and reasoned opposition to your argument (respectfully, of course! Just as a criminal trial is ostensibly about finding out the truth of what happened during the crime, consider that the aim of your paper is to get to the truth of the issue you’re addressing. Why is yours the stronger one? Or you can quote a politician or another public figure who has recently brought up the issue (keeping in mind that this latter option dates your paper), as long as you do it respectfully. Just like any piece of evidence you include, you should make sure to include a transition from your previous point, introduce the opposing/alternative viewpoint, present the opposing/alternative viewpoint (which may be a quote, fact, statistic, paraphrase, or summary of someone else's argument), and then respond to it.
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