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nixon's covert operations in chile

News and Highlights 2000/09/19 CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression: Chilean Secret Police Chief was a CIA Asset. "[10] It was chaired by Henry Kissinger. [15] "Track II" was a CIA operation overseen by Henry Kissinger and CIA's director of covert operations, Thomas Karamessines. CIA learned of the exact date of the coup shortly before it took place. The Station Officer also told him his request would be forwarded to Washington. Moreover, its leaders also worried that the United Kingdom would take economic control of the region through Chile. On 22 October, Viaux went ahead with a plan to kidnap General René Schneider. He states that the coup itself was possible only through a three-year covert operation mounted by the United States. On 15 September 1970; before Allende took office, Richard Nixon gave the order to overthrow Allende. The CIA paper discusses contingency planning for covert operations to influence a vote in the Chilean Congress scheduled for October 24, 1970, to ratify the winner of the election. Among the key revelations in the documents: At a special “Tribute to Justice” on September 9, 2013, in New York, Kornbluh received the Charles Horman Truth Foundation Award for the Archive’s work in obtaining the declassification of thousands of formerly secret documents on Chile after Pinochet’s arrest in London in October 1998. At the height of Pinochet’s repression in 1975, Secretary Kissinger met with the Chilean foreign minister, Admiral Patricio Carvajal. Because there are not enough churches for them, they went into the Department of State.”, As Secretary Kissinger prepared to meet General Augusto Pinochet in Santiago in June 1976, his top deputy for Latin America, William D. Rogers, advised him to press the dictator to “improve human rights practices” and make human rights central to U.S.-Chilean relations and to press the dictator to “improve human rights practices.” Instead, a declassified transcript of their conversation reveals, Kissinger told Pinochet that his regime was a victim of leftist propaganda on human rights. [24][25] On 28 September 1973, ITT's headquarters in New York City, was bombed by the Weather Underground for the alleged involvement of the company in the overthrow of Allende. The documents, which include transcripts of Kissinger’s “telcons” — telephone conversations — that were never shown to the special Senate Committee chaired by Senator Frank Church in the mid 1970s, provide key details about the arguments, decisions, and operations Kissinger made and supervised during his tenure as national security adviser and secretary of state. These notes came from a meeting Helms had with President Nixon, indicating the administration's willingness to stage a coup in Chile and the extent to which Nixon was willing to go to do so. Chile: The legacy of Hispanic Capitalism. [2], Chile instead asked that the United States remain neutral. A document released by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 2000, titled "CIA Activities in Chile", revealed that the CIA actively supported the military junta after the overthrow of Allende and that it made many of Pinochet's officers into paid contacts of the CIA or U.S. military, even though some were known to be involved in human rights abuses. [41], Conservative scholar Mark Falcoff alleged that Cuba and the Soviet Union supplied several hundred thousand dollars to the socialist and Marxist factions in the government. The committee decided it was unlikely they were going to be able to influence the 24 Oct, congressional election to go against Allende. Regarding Pinochet's rise to power, the CIA concluded in a report issued in 2000 that: "The CIA actively supported the military junta after the overthrow of Allende but did not assist Pinochet to assume the Presidency. In the days following the coup, Kissinger ignored the concerns of his top State Department aides about the massive repression by the new military regime. "- Department of State, Secret Memorandum, "Charles Horman Case," 25 August 1976 (uncensored version)[50], On 30 June 2014, a Chilean court ruled that the United States played a key role in the murders of Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi. Moreover, this strong emphasis on nonviolence was precisely to avoid revolutionary terror which had blemished the reputations of the French, Russian and Cuban revolutions. Another declassified copy of a CIA special intelligence assessment on Pinochet's role in the Letelier and Moffitt assassinations were presented to the Chilean President Bachelet in 2016. The Chilean people rallied around their government which, in turn, overwhelmingly ratified Allende on 3 November 1970. Authors Tim Weiner, in his book, Legacy of Ashes,[18] and Christopher Hitchens, in his book, The Trial of Henry Kissinger[40] similarly argue the case that US covert actions actively destabilized Allende's government and set the stage for the 1973 coup. Chile's political and economic stability depended on that particular election. During this first meeting, Nixon and Kissinger discussed Chilean attempts to secure new loans and renegotiate their existing obligations. “The example of a successful elected Marxist government in Chile would surely have an impact on — and even precedent value for — other parts of the world, especially in Italy; the imitative spread of similar phenomena elsewhere would in turn significantly affect the world balance and our own position in it.”The next day Nixon made it clear to the entire National Security Council that the policy would be to bring Allende down. Loveman, Brian. AMY GOODMAN: In The Pinochet File, you quote an assessment by the CIA’s directorate of operations, who advised President Nixon and Henry … The United States tried to bring an early end to the War of the Pacific, lasting from 1879 until 1884, mainly because of US business and financial interests in Peru. As the CIA denies its involvement in the coup, another cable sent from the agency on 8 September classified "Secret" had information on the Chilean Navy time and date to overthrow the government of President Allende. “Our main concern,” he stated, “is the prospect that he can consolidate himself and the picture projected to the world will be his success.”. By January 1972 the Station had successfully penetrated it and was in contact through an intermediary with its leader. The Americans viewed electing Christian Democratic contender Eduardo Frei Montalva as vital, fearing that Alessandri's failures would lead the people to support Allende. [44] The coup and U.S. involvement remain an important episode, as a New York Times report in October 2017 indicates. Her husband Michael Moffit was in the car during the bombing, but was the only survivor. During the attack on the Presidential Palace and its immediate aftermath, the Station's activities were limited to providing intelligence and situation reports.[35]. Helms was also concerned about Allende supporters in the Chilean military, as it seemed they would support Allende in the event of a coup. [14] On 5 November 1970, Henry Kissinger advised President Nixon against peaceful coexistence with the Allende administration and instead advocated one of two positions. [19] The Church Committee, which investigated U.S. involvement in Chile during this period, determined that the weapons used in the debacle "were, in all probability, not those supplied by the CIA to the conspirators. London United Kingdom: Yale University Press, 1988. "[56] However, the 2000 report also stated that: "The major CIA effort against Allende came earlier in 1970 in the failed attempt to block his election and accession to the Presidency. Start studying US foreign policies from Kennedy to Carter: the characteristics of, and reasons for, policies; implications for the region; Kennedy's Alliance for Progress; Nixon's covert operations and Chile; Carter's quest for human rights and the Panama Canal. The Itata Incident was the direct cause of the Baltimore Crisis and is one of the reasons that Benjamin Harrison was not reelected to a second term as the President of the United States. He died in Santiago's military hospital three days later. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2007. Kissinger stated in response that he would call another 40 Committee Meeting for the following Monday. “The State Department is made up of people who have a vocation for the ministry. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. [11], At a 8 September 1970 meeting of the 40 Committee, the chairman of the committee asked for an analysis of where the US/CIA stood in terms of taking action to prevent Allende from becoming President of Chile. During the Pinochet regime, four American citizens were killed: Charles Horman, Frank Teruggi, Boris Weisfeiler, and Ronni Karpen Moffit. [29], In the Chilean coup of 1973, Augusto Pinochet rose to power, overthrowing the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Related to the Military Coup of September 11, 1973. Accountability in Chile", Operation Condor: Cable suggests U.S. role, Court: U.S. military spies had role leading to 1973 deaths of Americans in Chile, "CIA: "Pinochet personally ordered" Letelier bombing | National Security Archive", "Pinochet and the Letelier-Moffitt Murders: Implications for US Policy," SECRET, Memorandum for the President, 6 October 1987", "CBS News - CIA Reveals Covert Acts In Chile - September 20, 2000 16:07:32", "CIA 2000 report (Summary of Responses to Questions, 2.A)", White House press statement 13 November 2000, "Chile President Pinera to ask Obama for Pinochet files", "A Chilean and American monument to Pinochet bombing victims rises in Washington", Operating guidance cable on coup plotting in Chile, National Security Decision 93: Policy Towards Chile, The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability, Intelligence Memorandum: Allende's Chile: The Widening Supply-Demand Gap, Church Report. A declassified file from 19 August 1970 reveals the minutes of high-level officials in the CIA known as the "Special Review Group. CIA’s operation to attempt to affect a national election in Chile in 1970 and its consequences have engendered more persistent controversy, and more polemic and scholarship, than any of the more than one dozen covert actions with which the Agency has … [59], In February 2018, in an effort to create a "lasting counterpoint", a statue honoring the slain Chilean diplomat and think tank policy analyst Orlando Letelier was erected on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C., near the location where Letelier was killed in a 1976 car bombing on the orders of Pinochet. "Track I" was a State Department initiative designed to thwart Allende by subverting Chilean elected officials within the bounds of the Chilean constitution and excluded the CIA. [31] Peter Kornbluh, director of the National Security Archive's Chile Documentation Project, argues in his book The Pinochet File[19] that the US was extensively involved and actively "fomented"[19] the 1973 coup. Joaquin Fermandois criticized Kornbluh's "black and white" and "North American centered conception of world affairs", stating that a variety of internal and external factors also played a role and that a careful reading of the documentary record reveals the CIA was largely "impotent". ; worth spending; not concerned; no involvement of embassy; $10,000,00 available, more if necessary; full-time job--best men we have; game plan; make the economy scream; 48 hours for plan of action." They were joined by an Admiral, Hugo Tirado, who had been forced into retirement after the Tacnazo insurrection. In these handwritten notes, CIA Director Richard Helms records the instructions of President Richard Nixon to foment a coup in Chile. Throughout this time, the United States successfully impeded the left-wing parties from gaining power. Document 9: Department of State, Memorandum of Conversation, “Secretary’s Meeting with Foreign Minister Carvajal, September 29, 1975. Document 5: Kissinger, Memorandum for the President, “Covert Action Program-Chile, November 25, 1970. The uproar over the clandestine U.S. role in Chile led to the first substantive congressional inquiry into U.S. covert operations, the first public hearings on CIA operations, and the first publication of a major case study, Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973, written by the special Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church. 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