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From the perspective of political realism, looking at the overall effect that the U. S. had on the Nicaraguan revolution and the economic power demonstrated, several assumptions can be drawn about the U. S. during this time period. About 500,000 people were homeless, more than 30,000 had been killed, and the economy was in ruins. [26], In addition to the Contra units who continued to be loyal to Somoza the FSLN also began to face opposition from members of the ethnic minority groups that inhabited Nicaragua's remote Mosquito Coast region along the Caribean Sea. He fled on July 17, opening the final phase of the regime’s overthrow. General strikes, land occupations, and urban uprisings announced the masses’ entry into the political scene against the Somoza regime in the first months of 1979. In the days that followed, insurrections broke out in several cities across Nicaragua. [citation needed]. The Nicaraguan Revolution: Nicaragua had a bloody history during the second half of the twentieth century. Die Kampfhandlungen fanden in den Jahren 1978 und 1979 statt. The extension and triumph of the Central American revolution⁠—and its unity in a federation with Cuba⁠—would have been one of the most terrible blows to U.S. imperialism. Of the three, the last one was considered the most left-wing, but the programmatic and political differences between the three were not significant enough to lead to major confrontations. So the U.S. government rebuilt the state apparatus in Nicaragua by setting up the National Guard, and propping up Somoza in the service of the U.S. empire. They attempted to confine each step within the framework of national states imposed by U.S. imperialism. [4][5] Soviet Union Bulgaria[6] Greece[7] Mexico[8] Costa Rica[citation needed]. The 2018–2020 Nicaraguan protests began on 18 April 2018 when demonstrators in several cities of Nicaragua began protests against the social security reforms decreed by President Daniel Ortega that increased taxes and decreased benefits. On August 12 of that same year, in the most spectacular action of the FSLN, the FSLN took over the National Palace of Nicaragua with the chambers of deputies and senators in session. "Bases de datos políticos de las Américas". Professors of Latin American studies may find it useful as a textbook for their classes. The Somoza family became Nicaragua’s richest, accumulating wealth through … The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the violent campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, and the Contra War, which was waged between the FSLN-led government of Nicaragua and the United States-backed Contrasfrom 1981… Somoza became increasingly isolated and was only backed by Latin American dictatorships. The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to international attention. [9] This led to international condemnation of the regime and in 1977 the Carter Administration in the U.S. cut off aid to the Somoza regime due to its human rights violations. While this is not correct, Somoza or his adepts did own or give away banks, ports, communications, services and massive amounts of land.[17]. Somoza’s family alone owned more than 22,000 square kilometers of arable land, and other large tracts of land were concentrated in very few hands. Undoubtfully, the most important was the planning and execution of the Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign (Cruzada Nacional de Alfabetización). During 1985, ceremonies were held throughout the countryside in which Daniel Ortega would give each peasant a title to the land and a rifle to defend it. [28] On 17 November 1981, President Reagan signed National Security Directive 17, and authorized covert support to anti-Sandinista forces. Despite all this, the sector of the bourgeoisie present in the Junta resigned, but another sector was integrated. While this complex process is beyond the scope of this article, it is important to note that the main objective behind the negotiations was the dismantling Central American revolutions. "Article 1 of the Agrarian Reform Law says that property is guaranteed if it laboured efficiently and that there could be different forms of property: The principles that presided Agrarian Reform were the same ones for the Revolution: pluralism, national unity and economic democracy."[20]. [22] As a result, in September 1980, UNESCO awarded Nicaragua with the “Nadezhda K. Krupskaya” award for their successful literacy campaign. Supported by Forty years ago Friday—July 19, 1979—a revolution in Nicaragua promised hope and dignity to the people of Central America. The Nicaraguan Revolution: A Marxist Analysis will be of interest to Latin Americanists, to students of the Communist movement, and to the general reader interested in world events. Nicaragua is going to become a new Nicaragua [prolonged applause], which is something quite different. The Nicaraguan revolution of 1979 inaugurated a violent decade of civil strife that has affected North American political relations for the past 40 years. Before the rise of the Somoza dynasty, the government was run by Adolfo Díaz—a leader installed by the U.S. Marines. The Nicaraguan revolution needed to fulfill those structural, democratic tasks, but in order to achieve its goals, it had to go beyond those tasks. Rustow, Dankwart A. The Contras, heavily backed up by the CIA and, although secretly, opened a "second front" in the Atlantic coast and Costa Rican borders of the country. "Agrarian Productive Structure in Nicaragua", Ib. 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