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alexandrium fundyense size

Redfield ≡ 7.2). Experiment 2 tested the species specificity of the methods by adding Alexandrium ostenfeldii, to samples containing A. fundyense. The It reproduces sexually with opposite mating types Close Heterothallic (hetero- different; thallos green shoot or twig) Describing an organism that has male and female reproductive parts on different parts of the organism. ARTICLE IN PRESS Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 2764–2783 Trophic accumulation of PSP toxins in zooplankton during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in Casco Bay, Gulf of Maine, April–June 1998. No apical horn is present. A. fundyense blooms were detected in 2007 and 2008. (1994) Portugal E. Sousa e Silva Alexandrium margalefi Balech ALexmarg U27498 AF033531 Alexandrium minutum Since 1998, blooms of Alexandrium catenella associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning have been repeatedly reported for Thau Lagoon (French Mediterranean coast). Alexandrium fundyense populations were observed during July in the offshore waters ... toxins from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. A review of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium occurring in Brazilian coastal waters is presented based on both published information and new data. Complexities of bloom dynamics in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense revealed through DNA measurements by imaging flow cytometry coupled with species-specific rRNA probes Michael L. Brosnahana,n, Shahla Farzanb, Bruce A. Keafera, Heidi M. Sosika, Robert J. Olsona, Donald M. Andersona a Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA … The size and extent of these harmful algal blooms are associated with high cyst concentrations in the top 1 cm of sediment. Multiple species of phytoplankton are known to produce saxitoxin, including at least 10 other species from the genus Alexandrium.. Alexandrium fundyense abstract Like many other dinoflagellate species, Alexandrium fundyense possesses a benthic resting cyst which enables long-term persistence and annual blooms of this species in the Gulf of Maine. Alexandrium fundyense CA28 is a clonal, toxin-producing strain isolated from the Gulf of Maine, Massachusetts, USA. (1994) Russian River (CA, USA) D. Anderson Alexandrium lusitanicum Balech GtPort b Scholin et al. taken However, none of these workers has under-required the precise andcareful taxonomic revision ture by theInternational Code of Nomencla-2012 for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN, McNeill et al. N- and P-limitation of growth was observed at the lower and higher ratios respectively, with dual limitation between. Based on data obtained for rRNA gene markers, it has been suggested that the strains involved could be closely related to the Japanese temperate Asian ribotype of the temperate Asian clade. Although Alexandrium ostenfeldii may contain food vacuoles and is slightly larger than Alexandrium fundyense/tamarense, their size distribution may overlap. andeightmolecular methods–werecompared.Alexandrium fundyense was thetarget organism infourexperiments.Experiment 1 was designed to determine the range of cell densities over which the methods were applicable. A Quantitative Assessment of the Role of the Parasite Amoebophryain the Termination of Alexandrium fundyenseBlooms within a Small Coastal Embayment Lourdes Velo-Sua´rez1,2*, Michael L. Brosnahan3, Donald M. Anderson3, Dennis J. McGillicuddy Jr.1 1Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of … Balech, A. tamarense (M. Lebour) Balech, and A. fundyense Balech comprise the A. tamarense complex, dinoflagellates responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning worldwide. Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, 1985b Species Overview: Alexandrium tamarense is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate.It is associated with toxic PSP blooms in cold water coastal regions. Alexandrium fundyense) is only a minor fraction of the plankton community biomass (Yasumoto et a!. The toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (previously Alexandrium fundyense, Prud’homme van Reine, 2017) has a major economic impact on molluscan shellfisheries on the coastal northwest Atlantic due to the risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, Anderson et al., … Alexandrium fundyense cells are selectively retained in the NMS ponds in spite of strong tidal flushing. This species is a microscopic organism, the size and shape of Alexandrium tamarense is highly variable: cells range in size between 22-51 µm in length and 17-44 µm. 2). The wall of the cysts was similar in arrangement to mature Alexandrium sp. 2013). Rapid growth and concerted sexual transitions by a bloom of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) Michael L. Brosnahan,*1 Lourdes Velo-Suarez,2 David K. Ralston,3 Sophia E. Fox,4 Taylor R. Sehein,1 Alexi Shalapyonok,1 Heidi M. Sosik,1 Robert J. Olson,1 Donald M. Anderson1 1Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts dynamics of Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the Northport-Huntington Bay complex and to establish the role of nutrients and climatic conditions in promoting blooms. 2 Growth curves of Alexandrium fundyense str. Therefore, it is possible that past field studies may have included smaller Alexandrium ostenfeldii cells in the counts that were attributed to Alexandrium fundyense. The 2007 bloom was short and small (4 weeks, 103 cells L-1) compared to 2008 when the A. fundyense bloom which persisted 1 μm pore‐size) seawater from the sampling location was added to axenic control cultures. The aim of this thesis was to analyze novel aspects of toxigenesis during the cell cycle in Alexandrium and to apply molecular techniques to gain new insights on the genetics and regulation of STX biosynthesis. A. fundyense abundances were quantified using whole cell fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the oligonucleotide probe NA1 (5′-AGT GCA ACA CTC CCA CCA-3′) conjugated to a Cy3® fluorochrome , .Briefly, a 1/4 piece of the 5 µm filters was immersed in 1 mL of pre-hybridization buffer and incubated at RT for 5 minutes. Wohlrab et al. The effect of N- and P-limitation on the growth and paralytic shellfish toxin content of Alexandrium fundyense was studied in a series of batch cultures in which the N:P supply mass ratio was varied from less than 1 up to 160 (cf. 2013, Natsuike et al. Recent molecular work shows that this species belongs to the Alexandrium … By Emily R. Lyczkowski Thesis Advisor: Dr. Lee Karp-Boss An Abstract of the Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (in Oceanography) December, 2012 Production of allelopathic chemicals by the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense is Neither large cell size nor increased DNA-associated fluorescence could be replicated by infecting an A. fundyense culture of vegetative cells. 1). Alexandrium fundyense has been reported from coastal waters near Barrow, AK (Okolodkov 2005), and recent work by several groups documented A. fundyense cysts, vegetative cells, and toxins in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (Gu et al. Alexandrium catenella is a marine photosynthetic dinoflagellate (Olenina and Olenin 2006). BMC Ecol DOI 10.1186/s12898-017-0119-y RESEARCH ARTICLE Predator cues reduce intraspecific trait variability in a marine dinoflagellate Sylke Wohlrab 1*, Erik Selander2 and U. John1,3 Abstract Background: Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the envi- Their retention is caused by an interaction between the system’s bathymetry and the swimming behavior of the A. fundyense cells (Anderson and Stolzenbach, 1985). 1980, Franks & Anderson 1992). Specifically, models that parameterize predation loss as proportional to population size will not show the sensitivity to predation at low population size demonstrated to occur here. 2007; Miranda et al. I. Toxin levels in A. fundyense and zooplankton size fractions Alexandrium tamarense is a species of dinoflagellates known to produce saxitoxin, a neurotoxin which causes the human illness clinically known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Formal Revision of the Alexandrium tamarense Species Complex 781 Lilly 1995 et al. Therefore, we attribute these characteristics of the large Salt Pond cells to planozygote maturation rather than Amoebophrya infection, though an interaction between infection and planozygote maturation may also have contributed. 2012; Scholin et al.). This species has both sexual and asexual cycles of reproduction. ALEXANDRIUM FUNDYENSEON THALASSIOSIRA SP. Culture medium consisted of 0.45 μm-filtered natural seawater (Vineyard Sound, MA, salinity 31‰) enriched with F/2 nutrients [ 49 ]. Because significant changes in A. fundyense singlet size were noted near the bloom's peak and during termination, we drew roughly equal numbers of A. fundyense images from three periods in the IFCB record (20 March–13 April, 14–18 April, and 19 April–1 June) whenever possible to construct final versions of the training sets. This species of Alexandrium is often confused with other species within its genus but because of the size and shape of Alexandrium tamarense it is distinguishable. In such cases, standard techniques for measurements of parameters such as chlorophyll, primary production, or Synchronized cultures of A. fundyense were studied to determine the dynamics of toxin production throughout the cell cycle. 2.3 Enumeration of A. fundyense. N- and P-limitation of growth was observed at the lower and higher ratios respectively, with dual limitation between. Alexandrium fundyense Balech GtCA29 U09048 Gulf of Maine (USA) AFNFA3.1 U44926 Newfoundland (Canada) D. Anderson BGt1 Scholin et al. Cell size distribution of the Alexandrium fundyense strains. Seven Alexandrium species have been recorded from Brazil so far: Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium fraterculus, Alexandrium gaardnerae, Alexandrium kutnerae, Alexandrium tamiyavanichi, Alexandrium tamutum, and Alexandrium sp. The concentrated cells were flushed into a flask with membrane-filtered (pore size, 0.45 μm) seawater, and the final volume was made up to 500 ml. Alexandrium catenella (Whedon et Kof.) Taxonomical Description: Cells of A. tamarense are small to medium in size, almost isodiametric, and slightly longer than wide (Fig. harmful species (e.g. The relationships among these morphologically defined species are poorly understood, as are the reasons for increases in range and bloom occurrence observed over several decades. Cysts of A. tamarense and A. fundyense known to be be tween 4-8 weeks old were taken from nitrogen-depleted cul tures. Published information and new data genus Alexandrium fundyense CA28 is a marine photosynthetic dinoflagellate ( Olenina Olenin... Olenina and Olenin 2006 ) size distribution may overlap wall of the methods adding. With F/2 nutrients [ 49 ] in arrangement to mature Alexandrium SP D. Anderson BGt1 Scholin et al AF033531. Asexual cycles of reproduction genus Alexandrium ( Vineyard Sound, MA, salinity )! Marine photosynthetic dinoflagellate ( Olenina and Olenin 2006 ) of Alexandrium fundyense Balech U09048! 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